German Shepherd | Dog Breed, Description, Temperament, & Facts (2024)

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German Shepherd dog, breed of working dog developed in Germany from traditional herding and farm dogs. A strongly built and relatively long-bodied dog, the German Shepherd stands 22 to 26 inches (56 to 66 cm) tall at the withers and weighs 75 to 95 pounds (34 to 43 kg). Its dense coat consists of coarse, medium-long, straight or slightly wavy outer hair and soft short inner hair. The colour ranges from white or pale gray to black and is commonly gray and black or black and tan. Noted for intelligence, alertness, and loyalty, the German Shepherd is used as a guide dog for the blind and as a watchdog and also serves in police and military roles.

The breed was created chiefly by a German cavalry captain, Max von Stephanitz. At a German dog show in 1899 he encountered a male herding dog of Thuringian stock whose energy, temperament, and wolflike appearance impressed him so much that he bought the dog on the spot. That same year, von Stephanitz and several like-minded associates founded the Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde (SV; “Association for German Shepherd Dogs”) and designated his dog, which he named Horand von Grafrath, to serve as the breed’s prototype and primary stud. The SV then began to oversee the development of the breed to rigorous utility standards by crossing carefully chosen herding dogs chiefly from central and southern Germany. The breed was introduced to the United States in the early 1900s, and it was formally recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1908. The German Shepherd dog was known as the Alsatian in the United Kingdom from 1919 to 1977.

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Care and upkeep

German Shepherd dogs are large and athletic, requiring frequent exercise. Although they can be walked, they especially enjoy exercise that incorporates physical and mental challenges, such as the sport of agility, parkour, tracking, and protection work. German Shepherd dogs may chase balls and other toys, but they are only adequate retrievers. Most German Shepherd dogs are strong swimmers. They can be high jumpers, so fences should be at least 4 feet (122 cm) high, preferably higher.

German Shepherd dogs are prone to skin problems that can cause itching, fur loss, and odours, so they may need extra attention during bathing. The double coat can shed considerably and may need daily brushing during shedding season. Otherwise, brushing once or twice a week will suffice. The German Shepherd dog is hardy in cold and moderately warm weather.

Like all large or heavy breeds, the German Shepherd should be fed a large-breed puppy food during its development. Research has shown that such foods result in a slower growth rate, which is associated with a reduced risk of hip dysplasia and possibly other joint disorders.

The breed is also susceptible to gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV), a life-threatening condition in which the stomach twists within the body, cutting off the flow of food and water to the intestines and the flow of blood from the stomach back to the heart. Moreover, the breed’s characteristically deep but narrow chest appears to inhibit some dogs’ ability to belch and thereby relieve gas pressure in the stomach. A buildup of gas pressure can cause breathing difficulties, constrict blood flow, and even rupture the stomach wall, all of which may cause cell death in many tissues and send a dog into shock.

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German Shepherd dogs are, by and large, playful and energetic. (Generalizations about dog breeds are well established and widely accepted, but individual dogs may differ in behaviour from others of their breed.) Most, but not all, make good companions for children and the elderly. They are devoted, vigilant, and protective family members, and the breed is among the best for watchdog or protection duties. German Shepherd dogs are often trained by military and police forces for tracking fugitives, assisting in search and rescue, and detecting illicit drugs. German Shepherds are also trained as service dogs and as actors, most notably in the role of Rin Tin Tin in American film and television.

Even with their innate intelligence, German Shepherd dogs need training and guidance lest their protective tendencies be misdirected. They enjoy training and learn quickly but can test a handler’s determination. Without a firm hand and clear guidance, a German Shepherd dog can take advantage of its owner and become the dominant one in the relationship. Some German Shepherds can be overly aggressive toward people and other pets in the household, but this behaviour can be corrected with training. German Shepherds will bark in response to perceived threats, but they are not overly noisy or excitable.

Breed data

This table provides a collection of vital statistics for and facts about German Shepherd dogs.

German Shepherd breed facts
other name Alsatian
area of origin Germany
breed group herding
height 22–26 inches (55–66 cm)
weight 75–95 pounds (34–43 kg)
life span 7–10 years
Did you know? In 1990 a German Shepherd guide dog named Orient helped Bill Irwin become the first blind hiker to complete the Appalachian Trail. German Shepherd dogs became especially popular in the United States after two of their breed, Rin Tin Tin and Strongheart, became Hollywood stars in silent films of the 1920s.

Caroline Coile The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

German Shepherd | Dog Breed, Description, Temperament, & Facts (2024)
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